Table of contents
Integrated rice cultivation and fish farming:
Introduction of Rice-Fish Integrated Farming:-Well, what is integratedfish farmingempaddy fieldFields? It's nothing but raising fish in itReis(rice field) in the same area without affecting the rice quality and yield. integrated fishAgricultureoffers the possibility to generate an additional income in addition to the main harvest (rice). Although this system has proven to be profitable, it has its own pros and cons. rice andfish farmingIt is widely used in Asian countries compared to western countries.
Advantages of Integrated Rice Fish Farming:- The following are the benefits of integrated rice andfish farming.
- Farmers can earn additional income by growing rice and fish alongside the main crop.
- Rice and fish farming control insects that are harmful to rice.
- Rice fish farming reduces the risk of crop failure.
- Rice fish culture is useful for weed control.
- Growing rice and fish increases rice production because fish extract nutrients from the soil that are very useful for rice cultivation.
Disadvantages of Integrated Rice Fish Farming:-The following are the disadvantages of integrated rice fish farming.
- The cultivation of rice and fish requires the limited use of pesticides.
- This integrated fish and rice system requires more water than growing rice alone.
- Rice production is lower in this system because ditches are required about 45 cm below the bottom of the paddy field. Due to these ditches, the rice acreage is reduced and results in lower yields. Digging ditches makes it difficult for water to drain away.
- In the rice-fish integrated farming system, water regulation is important and paddy fields cannot dry out while fish are being fed in the field.
- The fish size is small and the total production of fish produced in paddy field fish farming is lower compared to open pond fish farming.
- Commercial cultivation of rice and fish may not be feasible as the fish must be harvested along with the rice crop. This makes commercialization of the fish very difficult.
- Most of the paddy fields are irrigated by ordinary water canals and it is very difficult to control the water quality and pesticides.
- Fish farming in paddy fields may require more investment than just rice production.
- Growing rice and fish is more labor intensive than growing rice alone.
Site Selection for Integrated Rice and Fish Culture:- The choice of location also plays an important role in rice cultivationfish farmingin rice fields.
- It requires about 70 to 80 cm of rain, which is considered optimal for this integrated system.
- Fields with an even contour and high water storage capacity are the preferred soils in paddy cultivation.
- A good drainage system is one of the important factors to consider when choosing the location for the integrated growing system.
- Site selection should be free from floodplains as occupied fish will try to escape the fields.
Suitable fish species for integrated fish farming and rice:- Well, what types of fish are suitable for integrated rice? Fish species should be selected that tolerate shallow water of less than 14 cm depth and high temperatures of up to 38 °C. These fish must also be able to tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen and high turbidity. The following types of fish can be grown in rice fields. Water depth and duration of paddy and paddy cultivation play the main role in species selection in an integrated system.
- Common carp or mrigal (paddy cum carp culture).
- Catla (cultivation of carp rice).
- Tilapia (cultivation of carp rice).
- Rohu (rice cultivation with carp).
- Catfish (fish culture that breathes rice with air).
Use:In addition, shrimp (shrimp) can also be grown in paddy fields.
Rice Preparation, Management in Rice and Fish Culture:-If you plan to raise fish in paddy fields, traditional paddy fields need to be modified to improve fish protection and fishing area. These paddy fields should have ditches (lower areas), canals, canals or ditches. These ditches in the paddy field provide the best practices for successful paddy fish farming. These are extremely useful when water levels are low for finding food in corridors and an easy way to collect fish when the paddy is drained. When it comes to rice varieties, deep water varieties are best suited for rice and fish farming systems.
Ditches (deep areas) should be about 0.5 meters deep and at least 1 meter wide. Make sure the ditches are no more than 10 meters from the paddy field. For maximum ice production, make sure the ditches do not exceed 10% of the paddy field area. Once the fish have been stocked, a water depth of 10 to 15 cm must be maintained for the fish to survive. Another important practice in rice and fish farming is that the field water is free of toxins (insecticides). Do not carry out this simultaneous rice and fish cultivation when rice cultivation requires chemicals.
Fertilization program in rice and fish farming:-It is recommended to supplement the paddy fields with well-rotted hurdles.fertilize(FMY) likeKuhmistor anyorganic signature@ 25 ton/ha as base application. In the integrated system, deep-sea paddy fields require higher amounts of inorganic nutrientsfertilizerNitrogen and potassium are recommended at a rate of 50 kg/ha. These fertilizers ('N' and 'P') need to be applied at different stages such as sowing, soil preparation and flowering. Avoid pesticides/insecticides/chemicals.
Fish management in rice and fish farming:-The main management activities of fish farming in paddy fields are shown below and mainly depend on fish species, population density and location.
- Water quality control.
- fish harvest.
Fish farming can be done in two ways; simultaneous/concurrent cultivation and rotary cultivation. In concurrent farming, rice and fish are grown together, while in rotational farming, fish and rice are grown alternately. The rice field becomes a stormfish pondafter harvest. Stocking densities and fish production vary in both systems. Rotation culture has more advantages than simultaneous culture.
Common carp is the main species of fish grown in most paddy fields. The farmer is free to choose only a fish monoculture or a fish mixture. However, most Asian countries pursue a different way of fish farming in paddy fields. Typically, paddy fields have (peripheral) ditches with a depth of 30-45 cm, dikes with a height of 25 cm,BambooPipes and strainers at the water inlets and outlets. Fish can be stored after 1 week of transplanting rice. The fish stock density depends on the species, age of the fish and location. The juvenile fish/lightweights (carp or tilapia) with a size of 1 cm must be stored in the rice field. An average fry density of 3,000 to 4,000 per 1 hectare can be stocked. The water depth of the paddy field should be regulated between 7 cm and 18 cm when raising fish in the paddy field. Fish can be managed with a supplemental feeding of 5% of the fish biomass per day. This food can beMilitarySemolina (10%), copra semolina (20%) eTravel clothes(70%). The paddy field can be drained after 30 days to control the growth of fish (fish growth assessment sample) and they need to be refilled and refilled in the paddy field. In general, the growth period of fish is about 70 to 100 days. Fish must be harvested 1 week before rice.harvest. Performance depends on many factors such as fish species, feed, survival rate and water quality. An average yield of 200 to 300 kg/ha can be expected within 100 days of the vegetation period. dependent on weight gainnutrientavailable in the field, as well as additional power input. You can opt for a mixed culture with carp fry, yearling carp fry and goldfish fry.